Quantities limited! GET ON OUR LIST

The Science Behind Moxie

Developed by a veteran team of technologists, neuroscientists, child development specialists, and creative storytellers, Moxie is a robot designed with the latest technology that allows it to engage with children in a revolutionary way.

The Science Behind Moxie

The Science and Technology Behind Moxie

At Embodied, our team of experts including engineers, roboticists, neuroscientists, child development specialists, and creative storytellers, have been working for the past several years to rethink and reinvent how we utilize human-machine interaction to fuel new ways of interacting and learning. Drawing on evidence-led science and our combined expertise, we’ve developed a new revolutionary robot to help children: Moxie.

How does a robot help with learning?

How does a robot help with learning?

How does this compare with other ways of learning? 

Looking across 65 studies comparing embodied agents (e.g. robots) vs. non-embodied agents. Robots significantly outperformed non-embodied agents in 78.5% of the studies: 

 

Robots significantly outperformed non-embodied agents

This looked at both objective task performance AND user experience. 

*See footnotes 1-6 for studies referenced


What else does research say? 

Children like robots! Robots can engage and motivate children. They’ll anthropomorphize robots with life-like characteristics, states and rights.7 They form friendships and share thoughts.8,9 This type of engagement can help children with learning. 

Numerous studies (over 12,500 peer-reviewed articles!) also show strong scientific evidence that robots can help children improve social skills. 

*See footnotes 10-14 for studies referenced

So, I know my child will play with a robot, but what skills can my child learn? 


*See footnotes 15-19 for studies referenced

Personalization of the interaction through machine learning and AI increases learning gains. Hear more from our expert on individualized interactions:

    

Any additional benefits to using robots? 

Children engage with robots long-term

*See footnotes 20-22 for studies referenced

So what research is there about Moxie specifically? 

In our preliminary study, we’ve found that interactions with Moxie may help children improve in developing social and emotional skills.

Research summary:

We observed a group of children (twelve in total) who interacted with Moxie (3 times a week for 15 minutes) over a period of 6 weeks. Assessments were made before and after their time with Moxie and significant improvements were found in the following areas:

Preliminary Research - Subjective Assessments

Preliminary Research - Objective Assessments

Findings are preliminary and we will be expanding our research to further explore how robots like Moxie can help children (in a range of abilities) improve social and emotional skills. The preliminary study involved a small sample size and may not be indicative of actual results. The results of a child’s interaction with Moxie may vary. Individual participants may or may not directly benefit from interacting with Moxie and may not experience any observable behavioral changes. Families were not compensated for their participation in our preliminary study. For further details, you can view our white paper which has been published here

 

    References: 

    1. Lee, K. M., Jung, Y., Kim, J., & Kim, S. R. (2006). Are physically embodied social agents better than disembodied social agents?: The effects of physical embodiment, tactile interaction, and people's loneliness in human–robot interaction. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 64(10), 962-973.
    2. Shahid, S., Krahmer, E., & Swerts, M. (2014). Child–robot interaction across cultures: How does playing a game with a social robot compare to playing a game alone or with a friend?. Computers in Human Behavior, 40, 86-100.
    3. Jost, C., Le Pévédic, B., & Duhaut, D. (2012, September). Robot is best to play with human!. In RO-MAN, 2012 IEEE (pp. 634-639). IEEE.
    4. Komatsu, T. (2010). Comparison an On-screen Agent with a Robotic Agent in an Everyday Interaction Style: How to Make Users React Toward an On-screen Agent as if They are Reacting Toward a Robotic Agent. In Human-Robot Interaction. InTech.
    5. Kose-Bagci, H., Ferrari, E., Dautenhahn, K., Syrdal, D. S., & Nehaniv, C. L. (2009). Effects of embodiment and gestures on social interaction in drumming games with a humanoid robot. Advanced Robotics, 23(14), 1951-1996.
    6. Leyzberg, D., Spaulding, S., Toneva, M., & Scassellati, B. (2012, January). The physical presence of a robot tutor increases cognitive learning gains. In Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (Vol. 34, No. 34).
    7. Turkle, Sherry, Cynthia Breazeal, Olivia Dasté, and Brian Scassellati. "Encounters with kismet and cog: Children respond to relational artifacts." Digital media: Transformations in human communication 120 (2006).
    8. Beran, Tanya N., and Alejandro Ramirez-Serrano. "Can children have a relationship with a robot?." In International Conference on Human-Robot Personal Relationship, pp. 49-56. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
    9. Bethel, Cindy L., Matthew R. Stevenson, and Brian Scassellati. "Secret-sharing: Interactions between a child, robot, and adult." In Systems, man, and cybernetics (SMC), 2011 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 2489-2494. IEEE, 2011.
    10. “Robots for Use in Autism Research”, Brian Scassellati, Henny Admoni, and Maja Mataric’, Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, Vol 14:275-294, August 2012.
    11. “The clinical use of robots for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A critical review”, by Joshua J.Diehl, Lauren M.Schmitt, Michael Villano, and Charles R.Crowell.  In Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Volume 6, Issue 1, January–March 2012, Pages 249-262.
    12. “Are Robots Ready to Deliver Autism Interventions? A Comprehensive Review”, by Momotaz Begum, Richard W. Serna, and Holly A. Yanco.  International Journal of Social Robotics, Vol 8, Issue 2, 157-181, April 2016.
    13. “Why Robots? A Survey on the Roles and Benefits of Social Robots in the Therapy of Children with Autism”, by John-John Cabibihan, Hifza Javed, Marcelo Ang Jr., and Sharifah Mariam Aljunied. International Journal of Social Robotics, Vol 5, Issue 4, 593-618, Nov 2013.
    14. “A Survey of Expectations About the Role of Robots in Robot-Assisted Therapy for Children with ASD: Ethical Acceptability, Trust, Sociability, Appearance, and Attachment”, by Mark Coeckelbergh, Cristina Pop, Ramona Simut, Andreea Peca, Sebastian Pintea, Daniel David, Bram Vanderborght, Science and Engineering Ethics, Vol 22, Issue 1, 47-65, Feb 2016. 
    15. Kennedy, James, Paul Baxter, Emmanuel Senft, and Tony Belpaeme. "Social robot tutoring for child second language learning." In Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), 2016 11th ACM/IEEE International Conference on, pp. 231-238. IEEE, 2016.
    16. Park, Hae Won, Rinat Rosenberg-Kima, Maor Rosenberg, Goren Gordon, and Cynthia Breazeal. "Growing growth mindset with a social robot peer." In Proceedings of the 2017 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, pp. 137-145. ACM, 2017.
    17. Robins, Ben, Kerstin Dautenhahn, René Te Boekhorst, and Chrystopher L. Nehaniv. "Behaviour delay and robot expressiveness in child-robot interactions: a user study on interaction kinesics." In Proceedings of the 3rd ACM/IEEE international conference on Human robot interaction, pp. 17-24. ACM, 2008.
    18. Baxter, Paul, James Kennedy, Tony Belpaeme, Rachel Wood, Ilaria Baroni, and Marco Nalin. "Emergence of turn-taking in unstructured child-robot social interactions." In Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), 2013 8th ACM/IEEE International Conference on, pp. 77-78. IEEE, 2013.
    19. Gordon, Goren, Cynthia Breazeal, and Susan Engel. "Can children catch curiosity from a social robot?." In Proceedings of the Tenth Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, pp. 91-98. ACM, 2015.
    20. Leite, Iolanda, Carlos Martinho, and Ana Paiva. "Social robots for long-term interaction: a survey." International Journal of Social Robotics 5, no. 2 (2013): 291-308.l
    21. Leite, Iolanda, Ginevra Castellano, André Pereira, Carlos Martinho, and Ana Paiva. "Empathic robots for long-term interaction." International Journal of Social Robotics 6, no. 3 (2014): 329-341.
    22. Jacq, Alexis D., Séverin Lemaignan, Fernando Garcia, Pierre Dillenbourg, and Ana Paiva. "Building successful long child-robot interactions in a learning context." In The Eleventh ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human Robot Interaction, pp. 239-246. IEEE Press, 2016.